Faith and Works – Part 2

In continuing to look at the relationship between faith and works, I wanted to spend some time touching on the United Pentecostal Church International (UPCI) and Oneness Pentecostalism problem as it relates to this subject.  The vast majority of Christendom holds to the view that we are justified by faith – we are saved by grace through faith, not by works that we do.  Baptism is viewed as an ordinance – something that is very important in the life of a believer but not something that causes, brings about or merits our salvation in any way.  We are baptized because we are saved, not in order to be saved.

The UPCI view is that until a person is baptized in the name of Jesus, their sins are not forgiven.  But how does this view stand up to the seemingly overwhelming scriptural evidence that our sins are forgiven (we are declared just or right and at peace with God) when we turn to God in faith – that we are justified by faith?

In his book, The New Birth, Bernard addresses the question of grace, faith and works.  He does provide a cursory summary of several primary passages on the subject of justification by faith referring to Habakkuk 2:4, Romans and Galatians and states the following:

The bottom line is this: no one can be justified by observing the law of Moses or by doing good works.  Instead, the only way to salvation is through faith in Jesus Christ and His sacrifice for us.  Having established this, we must next determine what true faith in Christ is and how to have it.  (pages 35-6).

Bernard then cites to B.B. Warfield, “Justification by Faith does not mean, then, salvation by believing things instead of doing right.  It means pleading the merits of Christ before the throne of grace instead of our own merits.”  (citing from essay Justification by Faith, Out of Date?, Benjamin B. Warfield, 1911).  As we will see, Bernard is attempting to build the UPCI case in support of the idea that baptism and speaking in tongues are necessary to justification and completing the process of the new birth.

Bernard interestingly, citing to Warfield and the Reformed camp, seeks to argue that justification by faith does not mean just believing but also “doing right”.  Warfield’s point is not that the sinner must both believe and “do right” or be obedient in order to be justified as Bernard seems to allude.  Warfield argues that we are justified by works but not by any of our works.  Warfield writes, “It is justification by Christ’s works.”

Warfield cannot be any clearer in his meaning:

There is no justification for sinful men except by faith.  The works of sinful man will, of course, be as sinful as he is, and nothing but condemnation can be built on them.  Where can he get works upon which he can found his hope of justification, except from Another? … Can God pronounce him righteous except on the ground of works that are righteous?  Where can a sinful man get works that are righteous?  Surely, not from himself; for, is he not a sinner, and all his works as sinful as he is?  He must go out of himself, then, to find works which he can offer to God as righteous.  And where will he find such works except in Christ?  Or how will he make them his own except by faith in Christ? … If we are to be justified at all, it must be on the ground of the merits of Another, whose merits can be made ours by faith.  And that is the reason why God sent his Only Begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish but have everlasting life.  If we do not believe in him, obviously we must perish.  But if we believe in him, we shall not perish but have everlasting life.  That is just Justification by Faith.  Justification by Faith is nothing other than obtaining everlasting life by believing in Christ.  (Emphasis added)

Bernard would argue that it is by faith and our obedience to baptism that brings about our remission of sins.  We should recall that Bernard and the UPCI are strongly in the Arminian camp and believers in the concept of prevenient grace.  Bernard does note that faith “is the means by which man accepts and receives God’s saving grace.”  (page 34).  Bernard acknowledges that faith is a gift from God as well and that no one would have faith in God unless God would grant it.

As far as faith is concerned, Bernard cites to Webster’s Dictionary, The Amplified Bible, and Vine’s An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words to provide some definitions of faith.  He also cites to Charles Erdman who described faith as meaning far more than a “mere asset to dogmas, or the repetition of a creed” but describes a relationship with Christ in which the believer will trust in and be obedient to Christ and that the love for Christ brings about a trust and obedience that will lead to purity and holiness and a life of unselfish service.  He cites theologian Donald Bloesch as presenting a definition of faith as “a radical commitment of the whole man to the living Christ, a commitment that entails knowledge, trust, and obedience.”  (page 41).

From this definition provided by Bloesch, Bernard seems to identify three components of saving faith as meaning more than simply mental knowledge or assent.  These key components Bernard identifies as knowledge, assent, and appropriation.

Clearly, to have faith one must have a certain degree of knowledge or understanding of what it is that one is being called to place their trust in and a certain degree of acceptance or assent to the truth.  I must have had an understanding of my sin and the state of my relationship to God, a degree of knowledge of the gospel, as well as an acceptance of those facts.  I must have understood my need and recognized God’s ability to meet that need and I must have accepted these things a true.  These concepts Bernard would associate with knowledge and assent.  Paul wrote in Romans 10:17, “So faith comes from hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ.” Hearing the word of Christ brings life to faith God has put in our hearts and we respond to this new understanding in faith  to the word.

Bernard then comes to the third component of saving faith – appropriation.  “In other words, there must be a practical application of truth.  … Saving faith in Jesus Christ, then, involves more than mentally acknowledging Him as the Savior.  We must appropriate this truth and make it the guiding principal of our lives.  We do this by obeying the gospel of Jesus, by identifying with Him….”  (page 42).  Appropriation, according to Bernard, is appropriating the gospel to my life by being baptized and receiving the Spirit with evidence of speaking in other tongues.

Bernard cites to a number of passages to support that true faith is accompanied by obedience.  As we have previously discussed, it would seem that according to both Paul and James that saving faith will bring about a change in our lives –we will live out that faith through obedience to the word of God and the evidence of spiritual fruit in our lives.  It would seem impossible that one who is truly grafted into the vine would not produce fruit as evidence of their relationship to God.

Here is where Bernard’s reasoning goes off the rails and flies in the face of his quote of Warfield at the beginning of this chapter.  The UPCI and Bernard don’t see obedience as something that naturally flows out of our being in Christ but as something that we must bring to the table in order to find our way into Christ.  Bernard sees an “essential link between obedience and salvation.”  (page 44).  Yes; saving faith produces obedience, good works, spiritual fruit in the life of a justified and sanctified believer.  But no; my justification is based on the perfect work, life and obedience of Christ and his death on the cross alone.  My obedience – however pathetic my attempts– are not the basis for my salvation.  My obedience flows out of my being in Christ and the Spirit of Christ being in me producing the changes in my life that flow out of the grace that I have received through faith.

Bernard repeatedly cites to passages such as, “If a man love me, he will keep my words.”  (John 14:23) to support the position that my obedience is the basis for my being accepted by God.  Yes; a true believer will keep his words but it was by the obedience of Christ that I stand justified before God.  If my obedience/works are the basis for my salvation, then I am in serious trouble.

Bernard states, “Someone who really believes God’s Word will obey it.  God’s Word teaches baptism, so the Bible believer will be baptized.  God’s Word promises the gift of the Spirit, so the true believer will expect, see, and receive this gift.”  (pages 45-46).  Further, he notes, “we are saved by grace through faith. We rely on God’s work and not our own works to bring salvation.  However, this does not relieve us of our responsibility to respond to God, to obey Him and to act upon our faith.”  (page 49).  Bernard’s statements are contradictory – according to him, our salvation is not based on our own works but we are responsible to obey him to bring about our salvation.

On the subject of faith and water baptism, Bernard states that faith in God will lead to water baptism.  With respect to repentance and water baptism, Bernard states that they “are not works in the sense of things man does to assist in earning his salvation, but they are saving works of God.”  (page 55).  “Saving faith expresses itself in our obedience to Christ’s gospel and by our identification with Him. … The gospel of Jesus Christ is His death, burial, and resurrection (I Corinthians 15:1-4).  We apply the gospel to our lives – we identify with Christ and His saving work – by repentance, water baptism in the name of Jesus, and receiving the gift of the Holy Ghost.”  (emphasis in orig., page 61).

Saving faith manifests itself in obedience, among other ways, in the life of a believer.  Yet, because the gospel of the UPCI requires baptism in the name of Jesus to effectuate the remission of sins, they must justify this position in light of the clear teaching of scripture that our justification is by faith.  Implicit in the idea of true faith – being convinced of the promises of God and trusting in Christ and repenting of one’s sins – is the notion of bringing oneself into a state of obeying the gospel of Christ.

Obedience is no longer the evidence of a life in Christ.  My obedience is my faith leading to my justification.  An additional problem if obedience and faith are simply interchangeable, why just stop with baptism and speaking with other tongues.  Isn’t my entire Christian walk, my salvation continually held in a tenuous state dependent on my obedience, my works and deeds to keep me within the good graces of my God.  Bernard speaks of grace and faith and not our works but the works of God but in reality it always comes back to our working to bring about our salvation.  The dangerous aspect of this so-called gospel is that in the end, if one labors, he is paid what he deserves but we need to rely on faith in the work of Christ.

Now to the one who works, his wages are not counted as a gift but as his due.  And to the one who does not work but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted as righteousness.  Romans 4:4-5.

 

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Faith and Works – Part 1

 Can that faith save him?  James 2:14

In speaking with a UPCI minister once about my newly discovered understanding of justification and sanctification in the scripture, particularly in looking at Romans 3 and 4, one of the immediate responses was, “but you can’t just ignore works….”

On the one hand, when you come from a legalistic mindset that emphasizes man’s performance and meriting the favor of God by doing certain things, it is only natural that you are going to feel that something is terribly wrong with the idea that God forgives me of my sins when I, in my repentant state, turn to God in faith.  Surely that can’t be all.  Yes and no.  Yes, that is all that it takes for God to declare me righteous.  It isn’t about anything that I have done or could do – it is all about what Christ did on the cross and, in his sovereign prerogative, he placed within me the gift of faith and granted me the opportunity to repent.  End of story – and the beginning of the story.

On the other hand, the New Testament does talk about works, obedience, good deeds, and spiritual fruit.  So how does this all fit together?

In Romans 3:38 Paul states, “we maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from works of the law.”  In James 2:24, James states, “You see that a man is justified by works, and not by faith alone.”  How do we reconcile these two passages?  Are Paul and James simply contradicting one another?  This would seem contrary to our understanding of the divine inspiration of scripture.  Or should we simply look a little more closely at the context in which both men are writing and see if we can harmonize these passages?

Both James and Paul must be viewed in their context.  They are both addressing different issues relating to the subject of salvation but as we will see they are coming at that subject with very different points.

As we are already aware, Paul is addressing justification from the context of redemption.  We are at peace with God as a result of our being justified by grace through faith.  We are saved not as a result of our works or any law keeping but because of our faith in God.  One cannot work their way to heaven or merit God’s favor but the remission of sins is purely a gift of God through the grace of God.  Paul is addressing how it is one moves from being an unregenerate sinner into the church of God and it is through justification by faith.

As we look at the context of James, he is writing to the church and is addressing some very specific issues that he is seeing in the church.  He is not addressing justification from the standpoint of getting “into the church” but he is addressing those that claim to be a part of the church and having been justified by faith.  The problem that James is addressing is those who claim to be believers but that proclamation of faith yields no further fruit.  He addresses situations that he sees in the church that reflect a lack to true faith that would have led to justification in the first place.

James is drawing a line between those who have make an intellectual assent (a form of faith in that it is an intellectual acknowledgement of God) and those that possess true saving faith that results in spiritual fruit, such as obedience, in the life of a person that is truly trusting in Christ.

His point is that true saving faith results in a life of obedience to God – not that we live perfect lives and never make mistakes and fall – but there should be a manifest change in our lives if the Spirit of God is truly living in our hearts.

James writes of true religion being a faith in which professed believers are not merely hearers of the word but doers of the word.  To be a hearer of the word only is to deceive yourself for we must be doers of what we hear.  We must be obedient to the word of God in our lives.  James speaks of true and pure religion being that which produces fruit in the life of the believer.  It will change the way a man speaks and the things which concern man.  He will be concerned with the poor and seek to remain unstained from the world.  (James 1:19-27).  A man will not show partiality among the believers but will seek to fulfill the royal law, which is to love ones neighbors as oneself.  (James 2:1-9).

After showing that faith and religion should produce a change in the life of a professed believer, James asks, “What good is it, my brothers, if someone says he has faith but does not have works?  Can that faith save him?  If a brother or a sister is poorly clothed and lacking in daily food, and one of you says to them, “Go in peace, be warm and filled,” without giving them the things needed for the body, what good is that?  So also faith by itself, if it does not have works is dead.”  (James 2:14-17).

The point of James:  How can you say that you have true saving faith in your heart if your life and behavior does not demonstrate that faith with consistent works of faith?  Your behavior should reflect your profession of faith.  The answer to James’ question, “Can that faith save him?” is No.  A faith that is not accompanied by any fruit cannot be true faith.

“I will show you my faith by my works.”  (James 2:18).  Works – not in the legalistic sense of meriting anything from God or somehow earning God’s favor by our actions – demonstrate the faith that is in our hearts.  Our works reveal that faith that is within us and, thus, vindicates our profession of faith.  James points out that the devils believe in God and they shudder.  The point here isn’t that faith alone is insufficient to save because even the devils believe – the point being made by James is that the devils don’t have a faith that can restore their relationship and status with God because it does not and will not bring about a conformity on the part of the devil to the image of Christ.  Their faith does not produce obedience.  Their faith is not a saving faith.

John Calvin stated, “He says that faith is dead, being by itself, that is, when destitute of good works.  Hence we conclude that it is indeed no faith, for when dead, it does not properly retain the name.”  Thus, absent a demonstration of faith, there is truly no evidence that there ever was true faith to begin with.

Abraham

James offers some examples and first cites to Abraham.  In verses 20-24 he states, “Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered up his son Isaac on the altar?  You see that faith was active along with his works, and faith was completed by his works; and the scripture was fulfilled that says, ‘Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness’ – and he was called a friend of God.  You see that a person is justified by works and not by faith alone.’

Certainly this is a challenging text but if one looks closely at what is being stated by James, we see this comports perfectly with the notion that we are focusing on the evidence of faith in one’s life justifying or vindicating their profession of faith, not resulting in their justification/salvation by works.

We know, according to Paul and a reading of Genesis 15, that it was when Abraham believed God that his faith was counted to him as righteousness.  Abraham was justified before God – he was declared righteous when he believed God.  It was before the performance of any works, including circumcision and years before even the birth of Isaac.  (See Romans 4:1-3).  Nevertheless, Abraham’s claim to faith was justified or vindicated in the sight of man when he obeyed God, left his country and his family, was circumcised, and even when he offered up Isaac on the altar in obedience to God.  When he was obedient to God, Abraham was demonstrating that his claim to faith was true and a reality.

When James cites to Abraham’s offering Isaac up on the altar, from Genesis 22, we know what Abraham had already believed God and was justified.  God was examining Abraham’s heart by asking for his obedience and through his obedience, Abraham’s faith was justified or vindicated.

Abraham’s obedience was not the grounds for his justification in the sense of salvation.  As James points out “and the scripture was fulfilled” – Abraham’s living out his faith through obedience was fulfilling or revealing that his profession of utter and complete faith in God was a true profession of faith.

Paul stresses that faith along brings about our justification but James shows that a faith that can save/justify us is one that will bring about evidence that faith is truly present in the heart.  James is stressing the expression of faith.  As James asked the question, “show me your faith apart from deeds” he looks to Abraham and says that Abraham’s profession of faith was demonstrably true – he was shown to be righteous – by his actions.

            Rehab

James cites to another Old Testament example in the prostitute, Rehab, of Jericho.  “And in the same way was not also Rehab the prostitute justified by works when she received the messengers and sent them out by another way?”  (James 2:25).

James compares the manner of Father Abraham’s justification with that of the prostitute Rehab.  Rehab hid and protected the two spies from Israel sent to spy out Jericho for its eventual destruction.  Abraham’s faith was revealed in his willingness to offer the son of promise, Isaac, on the alter.  Rehab’s faith was revealed in the fact that she hid the spies when the men of Jericho came looking for them.  This was a demonstration of the faith that was present within her.  It was as clear a demonstration of faith in God as Abraham’s willingness to offer up Isaac.  Hebrews 11:31 mentions Rehab as one of the heroes of faith and that it was her faith that motivated her actions in hiding the spies.

Afterwards, her words to the spies confirm the faith-based motivation of her actions:  “I know that the LORD has given you the land, and that the fear of you has fallen upon us, and that all the inhabitants of the land melt away before you.  … And as soon as we heard it, our hearts melted, and there was no spirit left in any man because of you, for the LORD your God, he is God in the heavens above and on the earth beneath.  Now then, please swear to me by the LORD that, as I have dealt kindly with you, you also will deal kindly with my father’s house, and give me a sure sign that you will save alive my father and mother, my brothers and sisters and all who belong to them, and deliver our lives from death.”  (Joshua 2:9-13).

Summary

There is no contradiction between Paul and James on the subjects of faith and works.  To the contrary, Paul wrote many times on the subject of works or obedience or what he might call the fruit of the Spirit that results from a true profession of faith in God.  In Romans 1:5, Paul ties faith with obedience.

Paul wrote to the Philippians, “For by grace you have been saved through faith.  And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast.”  So we have been saved by grace through faith – it is not of our own doing and it is not the result of works so no one can be arrogant concerning their salvation.  In the very next sentence, Paul continues, “For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them.”  (Philippians 2:8-10).

Paul further exhorted in Titus (2:7, 14, 3:1, 8, 14):

“Show yourself in all respects to be a model of good works, and in your teaching show integrity, dignity….”

“…who gave himself to redeem us from all lawlessness and to purify for himself a people for his own possession who are zealous for good works.”

“Remind them to be submissive to rulers and authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good work….”

“The saying is trustworthy, and I want you to insist on these things, so that those who have believed God may be careful to devote themselves to good works.  These things are excellent and profitable for people.”

“And lot our people learn to devote themselves to good works, so as to help in cases of urgent need, and not be unfruitful.

These are only a few examples from Paul out of Titus alone that stress the importance of living out our faith.  Other passages include:  2 Cor 9:8, Col 1:10, 2 Thess 1:11, 2:17, I Tim 2:10, 5:10, 5:25, 6:18, 2 Tim 2:21, 3:17.

Certainly, Jesus himself taught over and over the necessity of living out our faith and obedience.  Our justification by faith and call to good works are complementary and never in contradiction to one another so long as they are viewed in their proper context and in light of the larger understanding of the nature of man without Christ and with Christ.  As we have previously discussed, can one who is dead in his trespasses and in rebellion to God truly perform good works to somehow earn the forgiveness of sins.  Or is our obedience simply another outflow that results from the change that God has worked within in our hearts?  Paul and James would seem to agree that faith brings about an internal change that brings about an external change through a life lived demonstrating the faith that is now within us.

Thoughts on Justification – Part 4

The Just Shall Live By Faith – Habakkuk 2:4, Romans 1:17, Galatians 2:20, 3:11-12, Hebrews 10:38

Once we have an appreciation for the scriptural understanding of man’s state outside of God – that state being one of spiritual death – one can begin to appreciate that to bring about a change requires not the dead to do anything in particular, for the dead can do nothing, but requires the giver of life to take action.  The UPCI would have the general view of Jesus standing at the door and knocking at the sinner’s heart waiting for the sinner to open the door (a twisted view of Revelation 3:20).  Instead, the picture of salvation is best portrayed by the dead Lazarus in the tomb for four days only to be raised and called out by Jesus.  Lazarus would have stayed in his natural state of death had Jesus not intervened.  In that state of death, Lazarus was powerless to do anything of his own accord.  It was only when the call came to him that life came back into his dead body and he was then empowered to walk and be loosed, to eat and fellowship with his family and friends again.

Sinners are in a state of spiritual death and are powerless on their own to free themselves from their state of death.  Paul makes clear that in this state, sinners are the enemies of God, they will not submit to the will of God and are incapable of doing so (see Romans 7, 8).  Yet, the UPCI would teach that a sinner is not born again unless he repents, and is baptized in the name of Jesus for the remission of his sins and receives the Holy Spirit as evidenced by speaking in other tongues.  So the spiritually dead – the one who the scripture teaches is incapable of submitting to the will of God and is in rebellion to God – must of his own accord submit to baptism and speak in tongues in order to be brought to a state of spiritual life and peace with God.

What is justification?

We know that the result of justification is our having peace with God through the Lord Jesus Christ.  We have obtained access by faith into this grace, which brings about our rejoicing in the hope that we have of the glory of God.  (Romans 5:1-20).  Note – the peace that we now have because of our justification stands in contrast to the previous state of our relationship with God as sinners – that being under his wrath, as discussed in the first several chapters of Romans.  Therefore, it is imperative that we understand what it means to be justified.

First, the scripture makes clear that justification is something that is solely an act of God alone – it is something that God brings about and not something we do or contribute to in some way:

…So that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus (Romans 3:26).

And to the one who does not work but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted as righteousness… (Romans 4:5).

Who shall bring any charge against God’s elect?  It is God who justifies (Romans 8:33).

What does to be justified mean?

Justification is a judicial or legal proclamation about a person’s relationship to God.  Justification does not necessarily change the person but is a change in the person’s status.  Louis Berkhof noted that justification is a judicial act of God, in which he declares, on the basis of the righteousness of Jesus Christ, that all the claims of the law are satisfied with respect to the sinner.  It is unique in the application of the work of redemption in that it is a judicial act of God, a declaration respecting the sinner, and not an act or process of renewal, such as regeneration, conversion, and sanctification.

Thus, justification is a legal declaration by God concerning my status in respect to my relationship with him.  It is not causing me to become righteous or holy in an ethical sense or necessarily changing my inner man but a declaration of my being new status in Christ – I have been declared to be righteous as I have been put into Christ.

Justification as meaning a legal or judicial declaration is shown in a number of passages as well as within the Old Testament.  Deuteronomy 25:1 and Proverbs 17:15 demonstrate the legal nature of justification with its standing in contrast to condemnation.  To condemn does not mean to make one a sinner – but it is a declaration of one’s state of wickedness.  Thus, to justify does not necessarily make one just or righteous but it is a statement or declaration of their state of righteousness in the eyes of God.

How are we justified?

The passage stated above – Romans 5:1-2 – alludes to the fact that this occurs by grace accessed through faith.

The righteousness of God is access through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe (Romans 3:22).  All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, further, we “are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith.” (Romans 3:23-25).

Justification is received because of God’s grace, which is an unmerited undeserved gift from God.  How does one have access to this grace?  It is “through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe.”  Grace must be an unmerited gift from God.  As Paul makes clear, “But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace” (Romans 11:6).  If we inject works or our efforts into the idea of meriting God’s favor or bringing about our justification, it is no longer on the basis of grace.  Grace and works or man’s effort are mutually exclusive when it comes to our justification and being at peace with God.  We bring nothing to the equation other than faith and repentance.

Faith and Repentance

As a side note on faith and repentance, it should also be understood that faith and repentance can be described as opposite sides of the same coin.  In our turning to God (faith) we are turning away from the world and our sins (repentance).  Paul makes clear in Acts 10:21 that faith and repentance are inseparable.  You cannot say that you have genuine faith without genuine repentance and vice versa.  Repentance is a change of one’s mind – it is a recognition that one’s righteousness is as filthy rags and that his only hope is in God’s mercy.  Out of this change of mind a person confesses his sin and turns away from those things and to God.  The proof of a repentant heart is the action that flows out of his changed mind and attitude.  To say that faith and repentance is now something that man brings to the table is also a misunderstanding of the scripture and giving credit where it does not belong – the spiritually dead man.

Scripture seems rather clear that both repentance and faith are gifts from God to man.  In numerous passages, faith is seen as being a gift from God to man – that man’s ability to believe, his faith, is a direct result of God’s sovereign activity in opening man’s heart to have the ability to respond.  Ephesians 2:8 states, “For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God.”  The “and that not of yourselves” is most likely modifying the idea of “faith” – that is that faith is not of ourselves but it is the gift of God.  Philippians 1:29 shows that God has granted us two things for Christ’s sake – both faith and our call to suffer for him.

Multiple places in Acts demonstrates that God is the source of faith:  Acts 13:48, 16:14 and 18:27.

Similarly, repentance is something that God has granted to people – Acts 5:31, 11:18 and 2 Timothy 2:24-26.

Back to Justification

In addition to instructing us that justification is an act that occurs as a result of grace through faith, Paul shows us that Jesus was put forward as a propitiation by his blood.  To propitiate is to satisfy.  In order for God to be both just and the justifier, this punishment for sin needed to be satisfied.  His wrath needed to be mollified.  This occurred with Jesus’ death upon the cross.  The wrath of God for those who would believe was satisfied in that it was poured out upon Christ, the perfect sacrifice, the Lamb of God who took away the sins of the world, so that those who believe could have the perfect life and righteousness of Christ imputed to them.  This is known as the Great Exchange.  Upon Christ was poured out the wrath and judgment that I deserved and I have been put in Christ so that his righteousness and perfect life is imputed to me and I can now be peace with God and rejoice for the hope that is within me.

Some other passages:

And you were dead in trespasses and sins in which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience – among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind.   But God being rich in mercy, because of the great love with which he loved us, even when we were dead in our trespasses, made us alive together with Christby grace you have been saved – and raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, so that in the coming ages he might show the immeasurable riches of his grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus.  For by grace you have been saved through faith.  And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast.  Ephesians 2:1-9.

For we ourselves were once foolish, disobedient, led astray slaves to various passions and pleasures, passing our days in malice and envy, hated by others and hating one another.  But when the goodness and loving kindness of God our Savior appeared, he saved us, not because of works done by us in righteousness, but according to his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal of the Holy Spirit whom he poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that being justified by his grace we might become heirs according to the hope of eternal life.  Titus 3:3-7

Summary

So what pattern should we be seeing here with respect to how we come to be at peace with God?  We are at peace with God by our justification.  Justification is an act by which God, through his sovereign prerogative, undertakes to declare the repentant believer to be just and righteous.  Not a righteousness based on his own life obviously but the righteousness of Christ is imputed to the believer and his sins are removed.  The wrath of God has been satisfied as it was poured out on Christ in our stead.  God receives all the glory for there is nothing that we as rebellious sinners could have done in order to ever merit or earn God’s favor through our good works to satisfy the judgment and wrath that was upon us.  It is sole based on the perfect and complete work of Christ on the cross.  You and I bring nothing to the table but the faith and repentance that God has granted to us.  Through that faith we have access to God’s grace.  We bring nothing else.  We do not bring money, we do not bring good deeds, we do not bring baptism or speaking in tongues or any other work to somehow merit or appropriate to ourselves the salvation that was purchased for us on the cross.

Paul continues his explanation on justification through faith with a couple of examples in chapter four of Romans, which we will look at next time.

The Gospel According to Oneness Pentecostalism – Part 4

One of the fundamental issues with Oneness Pentecostalism is their hermeneutical approach to understanding scripture.  Unfortunately, it is a poor hermeneutic.  Despite their protestations to the contrary, everything starts and finishes with Acts 2:38.  All other scripture is viewed through the lens of Acts 2:38, which does not bring clarity but distorts their understanding of the gospel.  If a passage does not fit within the model of Acts 2:38, its meaning must be contorted in order to fit their soteriology.  Rather than understanding Acts 2:38 within the broader message conveyed by scripture all scripture is understood and interpreted through the lens of Acts 2:38.

In looking at David Bernard’s statements regarding repentance and baptism, he makes abundantly clear that repentance is insufficient to result in the remission of sins but relies on passages such as Acts 2:38 and 3:19 to argue that baptism must follow repentance in order to effectuate the remission of sins.  By repentance, one has had a change of mind, a change of direction and expressed sorrow for their sins but the sin remains and must be dealt with.  The only way to deal with the presence of sin in one’s life is to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ in order that those sins may be removed and forgiven.

The book of Acts examples make clear that baptism was viewed as important by the New Testament church.  Baptism always appeared to follow immediately upon a confession of faith in Christ.  The question must be asked of Oneness Pentecostals, were these people baptized because they were saved or in order to be saved?  What was their standing with God at the time they turned to God, repented, and confessed faith in the work of Christ?

In the Oneness view, they had merely repented or turned to God but were still stained with sin and unsaved.  The individuals they saw in the book of Acts who had repented (and even received the Holy Spirit, in the case of Cornelius and his household) remained in a lost state until they were baptized.  They were baptized in order to be saved.  They were baptized in order for the remission of sins to be effectuate in their lives.

Further, they were baptized because they must be born of water in order to be born again and see the kingdom of God.  They were baptized to identify with the burial of Christ and to bury their old nature and to walk in the newness of life.  Unless you are baptized you have not put on Christ.  Further, you must be baptized in order to identify with your spiritual circumcision and being a part of the new covenant.  Each of these assertions by Bernard are examples of proof-texting and, in many cases, argue against the position that Bernard is using these passages to defend – the essentiality of baptism to our being made righteous before God.

The fundamental message of the gospel is that we are justified by grace through faith in Jesus Christ.  It has been said that the repentance, which is a turning of direction, a changing of the mind away from sin and turning to Christ in faith are opposite sides of the same coin.  When we turn by faith to Christ and place our confidence in Him and His completed work for us on the cross this necessarily involves repentance of sin – the turning away from sin and turning to Christ.  In making such a turn, our sins are imputed to Christ and his righteousness is imputed to us.  We are justified (declared not guilty, declared righteous) by grace through faith and not by works.  When we stand justified by faith we have peace with God and we are able to stand before him and rejoice in the hope of the glory of God.  (Romans 5)

We are not justified by faith and baptism or faith, baptism and speaking in tongues or anything else for that matter.  Yet, this distorted view of the gospel turns the gospel from being a God-oriented message of salvation to a man-oriented message.  This leads to a number of other problems in the thinking of those that are trapped in this man’s performance view of salvation.  For man, in his fallen state, is simply never able to measure up.  There is no true freedom and rest in Christ when man is busy measuring what he is able to do rather than focusing on and being thankful for what God has done.  This man-centered mentality has the further dangerous consequence of denying glory to God by shifting the cause of our salvation away from God, Christ’s life and death on the cross and shifting it to corruptible man – away from creator and lifting up the creation.

The Gospel According to Oneness Pentecostalism – Part 3

In this third installment, I want to cover the “next step” in the gospel according to the UPC and that is receiving the Holy Spirit.

Receiving the Holy Spirit According to OP

In addition to repentance and baptism in Jesus’ name for the remission of sins, one must receive the Holy Spirit with evidence of speaking in other tongues in order to complete the new birth process.

According to OP, the baptism of the Holy Spirit evidenced by speaking in other tongues is viewed as not an optional, post-conversional experience.  Bernard cites to Mark 16:17 as supporting the view that speaking in other tongues is the sign of receiving the Spirit.[i]  While there are five biblical examples of people receiving the Spirit (the Jews, the Samaritans, the Gentiles, the apostle Paul and the disciples of John at Ephesus), Bernard notes that three of the accounts explicitly describe speaking in tongues while other tongues are implicit in the other two circumstances.

In Acts 2:1-4 Bernard states that it was the “speaking in tongues ‘as the Spirit gave them utterance’ [that] was the initial sign of each individual filling.”[ii]

“Speaking in tongues was what convinced the skeptical, astonished Jews that the Gentiles had just received the Holy Ghost; tongues alone sufficiently identified this as the Pentecostal experience (Acts 10:44-47; 11:15-17).  They knew they had received ‘the gift of the Holy Ghost.  For they heard them speak with tongues’ (Acts 10:45-46).  The Ephesian disciples also spoke in tongues as the first sign of receiving the Spirit (Acts 19:6).”[iii]

While in Acts 8 tongues are not mentioned, clearly a sign is given causing Simon the magician to desire to purchase the ability to impart the Holy Spirit.  While no mention is made of Paul speaking in tongues at his conversion, Bernard cites to I Corinthians 14:18 to demonstrate that Paul stated he spoke in tongues often.

With respect to the baptism of the Spirit, Bernard also states, “We should always expect speaking in tongues when someone receives the Holy Spirit.  Tongues do not save in any sense, but the Spirit baptism produces tongues as the initial sign.”[iv]

“What is the status of a person who repents and is baptized, thereby receiving remission of sins, but does not receive the Holy Spirit?”  Bernard answers that, “He cannot be condemned for sins that are remitted, yet he cannot enter the kingdom of God without the birth of the Spirit and the holiness imparted by the Holy Spirit.”[v]

What is sad is that I have known individuals, one in particular who was raised in a UPC home with a UPC pastor as her father, who believed that Acts 2:38 literally stated, “And then Peter said unto them, Repent and be baptized every one of you for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, with evidence of speaking in other tongues.”  When she heard this verse read over the pulpit of a non-UPC church and did not hear this final phrase, she thought to herself, “Let me go and see what the King James version says….”  She didn’t find that phrase there either.  The teaching that the reception of the Holy Spirit is always accompanied by the evidence of speaking with unknown tongues is so ingrained in the teaching of the UPC that lifelong members (who do not pay close enough attention to the scripture itself) can fall into this extreme of thinking.  Even if they know that Acts 2:38 does not state this, they absolutely believe that this is the teaching of scripture.

This is what happens when you approach the scripture with presuppositions – you will read into the scripture what you believe it teaches.  And yet, when those scales fall from one’s eyes or one asks and has the Spirit illuminate their sight as they read the scripture, it brings new meaning to the words of Jesus when he said, “And you shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.”

In the coming blog posts, I will begin to address the error of the gospel according to Oneness Pentecostalism and I hope that the words of Jesus will come to pass in the lives of any Oneness Pentecostal who will happen across this blog.

[i] Id. at 20.

[ii] Id.

[iii] Id.

[iv] Id. at 21.

[v] Id.

The Gospel According to Oneness Pentecostalism – Part 2

In continuing my series of posts on the gospel according to Oneness Pentecostalism, I want to touch on the subjects of repentance and baptism and the OP view on these subjects.  You will note that OP does not view baptism as a simply an ordinance, however important, but as essential to salvation.  According to OP, you cannot be saved if you are not baptized and if your are not baptized by immersion in water in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of your sins.

Repentance and Baptism

Repentance, according to David Bernard, is only the first step in dealing with sin in one’s life.  He uses the example of spilling ink on a carpet and notes that there are two steps required for a complete restoration.  There must first be an expression of regret and apology to the owner, which would represent the notion of repentance.  But following repentance there then must be the removal of the stain and this is only accomplished through baptism.[i]

“The inward work of salvation begins at repentance, but repentance alone is not the complete work of salvation.  Water baptism makes the turn from sin complete by burying the old man.  Repentance and water baptism together bring the full work of remission of sins (Acts 2:38).  Perhaps we can say that God deals with the present consequences of sin at repentance and with the past record and future consequences of sin at water baptism.  Both components are necessary.”[ii]

Thus, for OP baptism is essential for the new birth.  It is essential for the removal of sin and for one to be in right standing with God.

Relying on I Peter 3:21, Mark 16:16 and Acts 2:41, Bernard asserts that baptism is an essential part of salvation and is an expression of faith in God by obedience to his word.[iii]  Bernard argues that baptism must be more than a symbolic ceremony and more than a public declaration of joining the church by citing to the Ethiopian eunuch, who was baptized in the desert with no observer, and the Philippian jailer, who was baptized at midnight, which demonstrated the urgency of the matter of baptism.[iv]

Bernard states the following passages demonstrate the significance of baptism:

  • Remission of sins occurs in baptism (Acts 2:38, 22:16)
  • Baptism is a part of the new birth (John 3:5, Titus 3:5)
  • Baptism identifies with the burial of Christ – it indicates we died to sin by repentance and are burying our past sin, the dominion of sin and sinful lifestyles (Rom 6:4, Col 2:12)
  • Water baptism is a part of the one baptism of water and Spirit that places us in Christ – (Rom 6:3-4, Gal 3:27, Eph 4:5) – by baptism we enter God’s family.
  • Baptism is a part of our spiritual circumcision – (Col 2:11-13) – by the new birth we enter into the new covenant relationship with God.[v]

With regards to baptism, two other points are of note with respect to the OP perspective.  First, OP (as the name implies) argues that baptism should be administered by immersion in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and anyone baptized in any other mode, such as in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, should be re-baptized.  Bernard cites to Acts 19 justifying the re-baptism of those who had been baptized in a manner other than in the name of Jesus Christ.

David Bernard cites to Acts 10 and notes that when “a person received the Holy Spirit before water baptism, he has a new spiritual life; nevertheless, he is commanded to be baptized in Jesus’ name, and we must always obey God’s commands to remain in right relationship to Him.”[vi]  There is a great deal packed into this statement that should be addressed.

Once one has repented and been baptized, according to OP, it is essential that the believer receive the Holy Spirit with evidence of speaking in other tongues as the Spirit gives utterance.  I will cover this topic in my next blog post.

[i] Bernard, David K., Essentials of the New Birth, Word Aflame Press, 1987. 16.

[ii] Id.

[iii] Id.

[iv] Id. at 17.

[v] Id.

[vi] Id. at 19.

The Gospel According to Oneness Pentecostalism – Part 1

For the next several posts, I thought I would provide some background on the gospel as it is understood by Oneness Pentecostalism (OP) in general – the UPCI in particular.  I will cite quite a bit to David Bernard, former pastor from Texas and now Superintendent of the United Pentecostal Church International.  He is also seems to have been, over the years, the chief apologist for OP.  He has written extensively on such subjects as the new birth, the oneness of God (modalism), holiness and other subjects from a OP perspective.  I believe I provide fairly accurately the OP perspective and feel that I am in a good position, though not a theologian or seminary trained individual, to rebut these perspectives.  With that, I thought I would being by looking at the OP perspective on the gospel in general and start by looking at the subjects briefly of the new birth followed by repentance, baptism and the Holy Spirit.

The gospel according to Oneness Pentecostalism (OP) is rooted in the idea of the new birth from John 3.  OP acknowledges that all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God and that the wages of sin is death.  In order to for one to be saved one must be born again – and this means being born of water (baptism) and being born of spirit (filled with the Holy Spirit as evidenced by speaking in tongues).  (John 3:3, 5)  To be born again, one must identify with Christ’s death, burial and resurrection through repentance, baptism and receiving the Spirit, which is the gospel.  (Romans 6:1-7, 7:6, 8:2, Acts 2, and I Cor 15)  Thus, one identifies with Christ’s death through repentance, is buried with Christ in baptism and is raised to walk in the newness of life through receiving the Holy Spirit.

In answering the question, what must one do to be save, OP holds that “Peter was able to give a precise, complete and unequivocal answer: ‘Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost’ (Acts 2:38 – KJV).  This comprehensive answer to an inquiry about New Testament conversion expresses in a nutshell the proper response to the gospel.”[i]

We will find the recurring theme of Acts 2:38 throughout UPC thinking.  It is absolutely central to the UPC understanding of the gospel and the lens through which the UPC views and interprets scripture.  It is the verse of scripture by which you can define the UPC.  In the coming blog posts, I’ll touch on the UPC notions of repentance, baptism and the Holy Spirit and from there we will examine these views more critically.

[i] Bernard, David K., Essentials of the New Birth, Word Aflame Press, 1987. 14.